Reproduced from: J. Appl. Hort., 1(2):149-150, July-December, 1999

A Report on the Sixth International Mango Symposium

Dr Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

Participating countries | Field trip | Technical sessions | Presentations | Topics not much discussed |
Seventh International Mango Symposium | Home | Mangoes

Introduction: The Sixth International Mango Symposium was held at the Merlin Hotel in Pattaya City, Thailand from April 6-9, 1999. The symposium was organized by the Horticultural Science Society of Thailand with the strong support from the Department of Horticulture at Kasetsart University; the Departments of Agriculture and Agricultural Extension of the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Thailand; the National Research Council of Thailand and The Thailand Research Fund. These institutions and organisations also acted as co-organisers to the symposium. This symposium was convened under the auspices of the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS). The convenor, Professor Suranant Subhadrabandhu, of the Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University also chaired the National Organising Committee and Dr. Aussanee Pichakum of Mahidol University worked as a capable secretariat.

Participating countries: There were 189 participants from Thailand and 156 participants from other 29 countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Columbia, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Israel, Ivory Coast, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Netherlands, United States, Venezuela, Vietnam and West Indies). Participants included scientists, growers, food processors, marketing persons and technical men from firms that supply agricultural chemicals and other products to producers and processors. The meeting location, warm hospitality extended by the host country and her representatives provided an excellent environment for this symposium.

Inaugural session: The meeting was opened with a welcoming address from Dr. Ananta Dalodom, Director-General, Thailand Department of Agriculture who welcomed all participants on behalf of President of the Horticultural Science Society of Thailand. Prof. Dr. Victor Galan Sauco, Chairman of the Commission, for Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture, gave the address on behalf of ISHS. Prof. Shmuel Gazit, Chairman of Mango Working Group, gave a speech on behalf of the Mango Working Group, and finally Prof. Dr. Thira Sutabutra, President of Kasetsart University gave the inaugural speech to preside the opening of the Sixth International Mango Symposium.

Technical programme: The technical programme was opened by two keynote lectures; Dr. Chirapandh Arthachinda, Secretary-General of the National Research Council of Thailand, spoke on Mango Research in Thailand and Dr. Victor Galan Sauco spoke on The Mango in Latin America. The technical programme consisted of eight oral sessions at which 75 papers were presented and one poster session that included 102 additional papers. Seven oral sessions held concurrently in the first two days.

Field trip: A one-day field trip provided participants with an opportunity to visit two private mango orchards in Rayong and Chonburi provinces. Both orchards aimed for domestic markets but with different managements. The orchard at Ban Chang district, Rayong province, owned by Mr. Wirat Thanapaibool employs fertigation system, while another orchard at Chonburi province, owned by Mr. Boontiang Sukniyom has no irrigation system, i.e. rainfed production. Both orchards produce mainly off-season mango with the aid of chemicals and suitable variety. The mango varieties of the two orchards are also different. The first orchard (Mr. Wirat) grows seasonal varieties (e.g. Nam Dok Mai, Fahlan, Khiew Sawoey, Man Duen Klao), with the aid of chemicals such as paclobutrazol, to produce off-season flowering. The second orchard plants non-seasonal variety e.g. Choke Anan, which naturally produce flowers all the year round. The participants were lectured about the management in these orchards by the owners and also clarified the questions by a group of scientists from the Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University led by Dr. Peeradet Tongumpai and Dr. Ravie Sethapakdi.

Technical sessions: The technical sessions were:
I. Country Status Reports (Brazil, India, Japan, Latin America, Taiwan and Thailand); II. Pruning and Propagation; III. Production and Physiology; IV. Postharvest; V. Fertilization and Nutrition; VI. Water relations and Irrigation; VII. Plant Protection and VIII. Biotechnology and Breeding. Considering the wide-ranging subject matter of the presented papers in the symposium make it difficult to summarise in a few paragraphs.

Presentations: Country reports from important mango growing countries including Brazil, India, Japan, South Africa, Taiwan and Thailand were among the highlights of the meeting. The highlights of the production aspects included; mechanically assisted harvesting by Dr. I. Bally of Australia; tree pruning and training for high density plantings of high yield by Drs. Oosthuye and Grove of South Africa; paclobutrazol and rejuvenation of old Alphonso trees by Dr. Burondkar of India; vigour ratings for rootstock/scion combinations by Dr. Rajan of India; off-season production of mango by Mr. Pongnart Nartvaranant of Thailand; use of degree days (heat units) as maturity indices for cultivars in India by Dr. Burondkar of India; and hormonal concept of mango flowering by Dr. Kulkarni of Australia. The studies on environmental effects on pollination indicated that low temperatures can retard inflorescence development, alter sex expression, cause flower deformity and more nubbins. Critical period on temperature effect was found at 3 days after pollination by Dr. Nipat of Thailand. Dr. Kanapol Jutamanee (Thailand) indicated poor anther dehiscence to contribute to poor fruit set and lower yield of Thai cultivars. Drs. Dag and Gazit (Israel) showed that blowflies can be as effective pollinator as honey bees.

Some postharvest and processing papers presented such as; kinetic model for modified atmosphere packages-pore size for equilibrium C02 weight loss and ripening after storage (Dr. Tongchai Yantarasri-Thailand); simple processing machinery for mango (Dr. Mandhar-India); pre-harvest sprays of ethrel to enhance colour at harvest (Dr. Quzman- Mexico); new techniques for mango juice concentration and new mango products (Dr. Lozano et al.-Thailand and India; Dr. Boonbumpung et al.-Japan-Thailand-France); acoustic firmness maturity assessment (Dr. Polderdijk et al. The Netherlands-Israel).

Papers on water relations and irrigation included three papers from Dr. P. Lu et al. (Australia); 1) use of xylem sap flow to verify actual water use by mango in-field and different shut down and recovery by Kensington Pride and Irwin cultivars; 2) use of microdendrometers and rubbery rulers to schedule irrigation automatically; 3) use of controlled water deficit for 5 weeks to give earlier more intense flowering and higher yields of Kensington Pride and Irwin. Dr. I. Bally et al. also from Australia presented a paper on "Use of deficit irrigation to consistently increase yields of Kensington Pride and Irwin". The fertilisation and nutrition papers such as: yield reduction with 1.5% boric acid spray to inflorescence by Drs. Dag and Gazit (Israel); big response differences between cultivars with soil applied boron by Dr. Rosetto (Brazil); guidelines for calculation of tree fertiliser requirements using stem circumference by Dr. Stassen et al. (South Africa).

There were many papers presented on plant protection, some of the papers such as: efficacy of neem for leaf hopper control (Dr. G. Singh-India); confirmation of mango malformation by Fusarium spp. using GUS transformation. (Dr. S. Freeman-Israel); sensitivity of fertilisation of mango flowers to a wide range of pesticides sprays 2-4 hours after hand pollination (Dr. Z.H. Shu-Taiwan); use of 0, 20, 50% C02 and 55oC for 4 hours to control eggs and larvae of Anastrepha spp. on mango (Dr. E.M. Yahia-Mexico); use of mono potassium phosphate at 1% added to fungicides to reduce cost of powdery mildew control in Tommy Atkins, Kensington Pride and Irwin (Dr. S.A. Oosthuyse-South Africa); incidence of mango malformation in Bahia, Brazil (Dr. A.R. Sao Jose-Brazil); use of actinomycetes against Botryodipllodia (Dr. Chiappeta et al.-Brazil); biological control of scale (with wasps and beetles) (Dr. D.M. Soubert et al.-South Africa); strategic spraying with monocrotophos or Fenthion at pre-flowering and at pea size to 100% control of mango stone weevil (Dr. Abhram Verghese-India).

Highlights on the biotechnology and breeding papers presented included the breeding programmes of mango in Australia, Brazil, India, Pakistan, South Africa and Thailand; the development of mango gene bank of the Fairchild tropical garden, USA, India and Australia; chemotaxonomy studies of Mangifera spp. and characterization breeding -possibilities for future (Dr. Wichan Eiadthong et al.-Thailand and Japan); variation between Kaew (polyembryonic cultivar) (Dr. Suwit Chiakiattiyot-Thailand). There were reports on the possibilities for using molecular mapping to assist mango breeding e.g. marker genes, gene cloning, map known genes, inheritance studies. Success in incorporating foreign DNA into gene of mango was presented by Dr. A. Cruz-Herandez et al. (Australia). Dr. Pintoo A.C. DeQ (Brazil) showed a very dwarf hybrid mango with possible powdery mildew resistance.

Topics not much discussed: It was noticed in this symposium that there was little to none representation in presentation both orally and poster, on market agents and buyers to tell us what consumer want as well as the economics and management aspects of mango. Much more studies are also needed on the following topics such as: rootstock and rootstock/scion interaction; phonological guides to management and management packages; yield/unit tree size relationships; high density management of mango (e.g. rootstock, scion, root restriction, deficit irrigation, pruning and training etc.); residual effects on crops and environments on using chemical spray.

Seventh International Mango Symposium: A business session was held on the evening of the second day to discuss organisational issues and to select potential site for the next symposium. The representatives from Brazil, Taiwan and Western Australia proposed their intention to offer the sites for next meeting. Brazil was selected to host the 7th International Mango Symposium with Taiwan as a standby site in case the Brazilians can not organise the event. Shmuel Gazit is still serving as chairman of the Mango Working Group.

September 2002, (Brazil): VII International Mango Symposium. Info: Dr. Alberto Carlos Queires Pinto, EMBRAPA, Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria dos Cerrados, BR 020, Km. 18, (PO Box 08223), 73301-970 Planaltina, DF, Brazil. Phone: (55)613891171ext2188, Fax: (55)613892953, email:

The social aspect of the symposium was properly arranged. Typical Thai hospitality to guests, participation was very much acknowledged. An objective of the symposium in improving communication and friendships among scientists, extension workers and producers has been achieved.