MANGOES IN INDIA
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VARIETIES: Characteristics of important Indian varieties, Hybrid Varieties
PORPAGATION : Inarching, Veneer grafting, Budding, Stone Epicotyl grafting, Soft-wood grafting, Air layering
PLANTING: Time of planting, Planting distance, Size of pits, Filling of pits, Planting of grafts, Training and pruning
FERTILIZERS: Quantity of fertilizer, Time of fertilizer application, Method of fertilizer application
IRRIGATION, INTERCULTURE, INTERCROPPING
REJUVENATION OF MANGO ORCHARD
DISEASES: Powdery mildew, Anthracnose, Die back , Phoma blight , Bacterial canker, Red rust , Sooty mould Postharvest Diseases
PESTS: Hopper, Mealy bug , Inflorescence midge, Fruitfly, Scale insects, Shoot borer, Bark-eating caterpillar, Stem borer, Shoot gall psylla, Leaf webber, Stone weevil
DISORDERS: Mango malformation, Biennial bearing, Fruit drop, Black tip, Clustering disorder in mango (‘Jhumka’)
MATURITY, HARVESTING, PACKAGINGSTORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION,
PROCESSING:Raw mango products Pickle, Amchoor, Slices, Green mango beverage:
Ripe mango products: Pulp, Beverages (Juice and Nectar), Squash, Slices, Mango Leather or Aam Papad
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the most important fruit of India. It is grown over an area of 1.23 million hectares in the country producing 10.99 million tonnes. It accounts for 22.1 per cent of total area (5.57 million ha) and 22.9 per cent of total production of fruits (47.94 million tonnes) in the country. Though Uttar Pradesh has the largest area of 0.27 million hectares under mango, Andhra Pradesh has the highest productivity of 12 tonnes per hectare. While Andhra Pradesh produces 3.07 million tonnes of mango, U.P., Bihar and Karnataka produce 2.39, 1.79 and 0.92 million tonnes, respectively. India ranks first among world’s mango producing countries accounting for 52.63 per cent of the total world’s mango production of 19 million tonnes.
Mango is very well adapted to tropical and subtropical climates. It thrives well in almost all the regions of the country from sea level to an altitude of 1500 m, i.e., from Cape Comerin to Himalayas. However, it cannot be grown commercially in areas above 600 m. Temperature, rainfall, wind velocity and altitude are the main climatic factors which influence its growth and fruiting. It cannot stand severe frost, especially when the tree is young. High temperature by itself is not so injurious to mango, but in combination with low humidity and high winds, affects the trees adversely.
Most of the mango varieties thrive in places with good rainfall (75 to 375 cm per annum) and dry season. The distribution of rainfall is more important than its amount. Dry weather before blossoming is conducive to profuse flowering. Rain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it interferes with pollination. However, rain during fruit development is good but heavy rains cause damage to ripening fruits. Strong winds and cyclones during the fruiting season can play havoc as they cause excessive fruit drop.
Mango grows well on wide variety of soils, such as lateritic, alluvial, sandy loam and sandy. Although it grows very well in high to medium fertility soils, its cultivation can be made successful even in low fertility soils by appropriate management especially during early stages of growth. Very poor and stony soils on hill slopes should, however, be avoided. The loamy, alluvial, well drained, aerated and deep soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 5.5 to 7.5 are most for mango cultivation. The extremely sandy, shallow, rocky, water-logged, heavy textured and alkaline or calcareous soils are not suitable for mango cultivation.
There are more than thousand mango varieties in India. However, only about 30 varieties are grown on commercial scale in different states.Important mango varieties cultivated in different states of India
|Andhra Pradesh||Banganpalli, Bangalora,Cherukurasam, Himayuddin, Suvarnarekha|
|Bihar||Bombai, Langra, Fazri, Himsagar, Kishen Bhog, Sukul, Bathua|
|Goa||Fernandin, Mankurad, Alphonso|
|Gujarat||Alphonso, Kesar, Rajapuri, Vanraj|
|Haryana||Dashehari, Langra, Bombay Green|
|Karnataka||Alphonso, Bangalora, Mulgoa, Neelum, Pairi|
|Kerala||Mundappa, Olour, Pairi|
|Madhya Pradesh||Alphonso, Bombai, Langra and mostly seedling types|
|Maharashtra||Alphonso, Kesar, Mankurad, Mulgoa, Pairi|
|Orissa||Baneshan, Langra, Neelum, Suvarnarekha and mostly seedling types|
|Punjab||Dashehari, Langra, Chausa|
|Tamil Nadu||Banganpalli, Bangalora, Neelum, Rumani, Mulgoa|
|Uttar Pradesh||Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fajri, Langra, Safeda Lucknow, Chausa|
|West Bengal||Bombai, Himsagar, Kishan Bhog, Langra|
Characteristics of important Indian varieties
1. Alphonso : This is the leading commercial variety of Maharashtra state and one of the choicest varieties of the country. This variety is known by different names in different regions, viz. Badami, Gundu, Khader, Appas, Happus and Kagdi Happus. The fruit of this variety is medium in size, ovate oblique in shape and orange yellow in colour. The fruit quality is excellent and keeping quality is good. It has been found good for canning purpose. It is a mid season variety
2. Bangalora : It is a commercial variety of south India. The fruit size is medium to large, its shape is oblong with necked base and colour is golden yellow. Fruit quality is poor. Keeping quality is very good. It is widely used for processing. It is a mid season variety.
3. Banganpalli: It is a commercial variety of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and also known as Chapta, Safeda, Baneshan and Chaptai. Fruit is large in size and obliquely oval in shape. The colour of the fruit is golden yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety and is good for canning.
4. Bombai : It is a commercial variety from Bihar state. It is also known as Malda in West Bengal and Bihar. Fruit size is medium, shape ovate-oblique and colour yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. It is an early season variety.
5. Bombay Green : It is commonly grown in north India due to its early ripening habit. It is also called Malda in Northern India. Fruit size is medium, shape ovate oblong and fruit colour is spinach green. Fruit quality is good and keeping quality is medium. It is a very early variety.
6. Dashehari : This variety derives its name from the village Dashehari near Lucknow. It is a leading commercial variety of north India and one of the best varieties of our country. The fruit size is medium, shape is oblong to oblong oblique and fruit colour is yellow. Fruit quality is excellent keeping quality is good. It is a mid season variety and is mainly used for table purpose.
7. Fajri : This variety is commonly grown in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. Fruit is very large, obliquely oval in shape. Fruit colour is light chrome. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. This is a late season variety.
8. Fernnadin : This is one of the oldest varieties of Bombay. Some people think that this variety originated in Goa. Fruit size is medium to large, fruit shape is oval to obliquely oval and fruit colour is yellow with a red blush on shoulders. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. It is a late season variety mostly used for table purpose.
9. Himsagar : This variety is indigenous to Bengal. This is one of the choicest varieties of Bengal and has gained extensive popularity. Fruit is of medium size, ovate to ovate oblique. Fruit colour is yellow. Both fruit and keeping quality are good. It is an early variety.
10. Kesar : This is a leading variety of Gujarat with a red blush on the shoulders. Fruit size is medium, shape oblong and keeping quality is good. It is an early variety.
11. Kishen Bhog : This variety is indigenous to Murshidabad in West Bengal. Fruit size is medium, fruit shape is roundish oblique and fruit colour is yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety.
12. Langra : This variety is indigenous to Varanasi area of Uttar Pradesh. It is extensively grown in northern India. Fruit is of medium size, ovate shape and lettuce green colour. Fruit quality is good. Keeping quality is medium. It is a mid season variety.
13. Mankurad : This variety is of commercial importance in Goa and in the neighbouring Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The variety develops black spots on the skin in rainy season. Fruit is medium in size, ovate in shape and yellow in colour. Fruit quality is very good. Keeping quality is poor. It is a mid season variety.
14. Mulgoa : This is a commercial variety of southern India. It is quite popular among the lovers of mango owing to high quality of its fruit. Fruit is large in size, roundish oblique in shape and yellow in colour. Fruit quality is very good. Keeping quality is good. It is a late season variety.
15. Neelum : This is a commercial variety indigenous to Tamil Nadu. It is an ideal variety for transporting to distant places owing to its high keeping quality. Fruit is medium in size, ovate oblique in shape and saffron yellow in colour. Fruit quality is good and keeping quality is very good. It is a late season variety.
16. Chausa : This variety originated as a chance seedling in the orchard of a Talukadar of Sandila district Hardoi, U.P. It is commonly grown in northern parts of India due to its characteristic flavour and taste. Fruit is large in size, ovate to oval oblique in shape and light yellow in colour. Fruit quality is good keeping quality is medium. it is a late variety.
17. Suvarnarekha : This is a commercial variety of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. Other synonyms of this variety are Sundari, Lal Sundari. Fruit is medium in size and ovate oblong in shape. Colour of the fruit is light cadmium with a blush of jasper red. Fruit quality is medium and keeping quality is good. It is an early variety.
18. Vanraj : It is a highly prized variety of Vadodra district of Gujarat and fetches good returns. Fruit is medium in size, ovate oblong in shape and colour is deep chrome with a blush of jasper red on the shoulders. Fruit quality and keeing quality good. It is a mid season variety.
19. Zardalu : This variety is indigenous to Murshidabad in West Bengal. Fruit size is medium, oblong to obliquely oblong and golden yellow in colour. Fruit quality is very good. Keeping quality is medium. It is a mid season variety.
i) Amarapali : This hybrid is from a cross of Dashehari x Neelum. It is dwarf, regular bearing and late maturing variety. The variety is suitable for high density planting as about 1600 plants may be planted in a hectare. It yields on an average 16 tonnes / hectare.
ii) Mallika : It is from a cross of Neelum x Dashehari. Its fruit is large in size, oblong elliptical and in shape cadmium yellow in colour. Fruit and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety.
iii) Arka Aruna : It is a hybrid between Baganpalli and Alphonso. It is dwarf regular bearing, precocious. Fruits are large having attractive skin colour with red blush free from spongy tissue.
iv) Arka Puneet : It is a hybrid between Alphonso and Banganpalli. It regular and prolific bearer. Fruits are medium sized having attractive skin colour with red blush and free from spongy tissue. Excellent keeping quality.
v) Arka Anmol : This hybrid is from a cron of Alphonso and Janardhan Pasand. It is regular bearer and good yielder. Fruits are medium sized having uniform yellow peel colour, excellent keeping quality and free from spongy tissue.
vi) Arka Neelkiran : It is a hybrid between Alphonso and Neelum. It is , regular bearering late season variety with medium sized fruits having attractive red blush free from spongy tissue.
vii) Ratna : This hybrid is from a cross of Neelum x Alphonso. Tree vigorous, precautions, fruits are medium sized, attractive in colour and free from spongy tissue.
viii) Sindhu : It is from a cross of Ratna x Alphonso. It is regular bearer, fruits medium sized, free from spongy tissue with high pulp to stone ratio and very thin and small stone.
ix) Au Rumani : It is from a cross of Rumani x Mulgoa. It is precocious, heavy and regular bearing with large fruits having yellow cadmium skin colour.
x) Manjeera : This hybrid is from a cross of Rumani x Neelum. It is dwarf, regular and prolific bearer with firm and fibre less flesh.
Other hybrid varieties released are Alfazali, Sundar Langra, Sabri, Jawahar, Neelphonso, Neeleshan, Neeleshwari and PKM2.